What is the hub?

  • A hub is a common connection point, also known as a network hub, which is used for connection of all the devices in a network.
  • The hub has numerous ports.
  • If a packet reaches at one port, it is able to see by all the segments of the network due to a packet is copied to the other ports.
  • A network hub has no routing tables or intelligence (unlike a network switch or router), which is used to send information and broadcast all network data across each and every connection.
  • The network hubs were popular in the past time as they were cheaper as compared to a switch or router.
  • Nowadays, switches are much cheaper than a hub and provide a better solution for any network.
  • A hub is no IP address, as it is a dumb device.

Types of Hub

There are three types of the hub that are given below:

  1. Passive Hub
  2. Active Hub
  3. Intelligent Hub

Passive Hub: 

  • The passive hubs are the connection point for wires that helps to make the physical network.
  • It can determine the bugs and faulty hardware.
  • Simply, it accepts the packet over a port and circulates it to all ports.
  • It includes connectors (10base-2 port and RJ-45).
  • This connector is connected to all local area network (LAN) devices.
  • The advanced passive hubs have AUI ports, which are connected as the transceiver according to the network design.

Active Hub: 

  • It can monitor the data sent to the connected devices.
  • It plays an important role between the connected devices with the help of store technology, where it checks the data to be sent and decides which packet to send first.
  • It has the ability to fix the damaged packets when packets are sending, and also able to hold the direction of the rest of the packets and distribute them.
  • If a port receives a weak signal, but still it is readable, then the active hub reconstructs the weak signal into a stronger signal before its sending to other ports.
  • It can boost the signal if any connecting device is not working in the network.

Intelligent Hub: 

  • These hubs have some kinds of management software that help to analyze the problem in the network and resolve them.
  • It is beneficial to expend the business in networking; the management can assign users that help to work more quickly and share a common pool efficiently by using intelligent hubs.
  • However, it offers better performance for the local area network.
  • And with any physical device, if any problem is detected, it is able to detect this problem easily.

Features of Hub

  • It acts with shared bandwidth and broadcasting.
  • It includes only one collision domain and broadcast domain.
  • It works at the physical layer of the OSI model and also offers support for half-duplex transmission mode.
  • It cannot create a virtual LAN and does not support spanning tree protocol.
  • It has a high transmission rate to different devices.

Applications of Hub

  • Hub is used to create small home networks.
  • It is used for network monitoring.
  • They are also used in organizations to provide connectivity.
  • It can be used to create a device that is available thought out of the network.

Functions of HUB

  • Hubs work as a central connection between all network equipment and handle a data type, which is called frames.
  • Hub transmit it to the port of the destination computer after amplifying it.
  • A frame is passed to each of its ports in the hub, whether it is destined only for one port.
  • It does not decide the port it should be sent.
  • Therefore, a frame has to transmit to every port.
  • For this reasons only, it generates a lot of traffic on the network and can be caused to damage the network.
  • The hub is slower as compared to standard switch as it is not able to send or receive information at the same time, but a switch is more costly than a hub.

Advantages of Hub

  • It provides support for different types of Network Media.
  • It can be used by anyone as it is very cheap.
  • It can easily connect many different media types.
  • The use of a hub does not impact on the network performance.
  • It can expand the total distance of the network.

Disadvantages of Hub

  • It has no ability to choose the best path of the network.
  • It does not include mechanisms such as collision detection.
  • It does not operate in full-duplex mode and cannot be divided into the Segment.
  • It cannot reduce the network traffic as it has no mechanism.
  • It is not able to filter the information as it transmits packets to all the connected segments.
  • It is not capable of connecting various network architectures like a ring, token, and ethernet, and more.

Difference between a Hub and a Switch

  • It is a passive device. But switch is an active device.
  • It is not an intelligent device. But a switch is an intelligent device.
  • In the hub, the transmission mode is Half-duplex. But in switch, the transmission mode is full-duplex.
  • It uses electrical signal orbits. But Switch uses frame & packet.
  • A hub is not capable of storing MAC addresses. But a Switch uses accessible content memory, which can be accessed by application-specific integrated chips (ASIC).
  • A hub contains a single domain of collision. But in switch, several ports include separate collision domains.
  • A hub works at the physical layer of the OSI model. A switch works at the data link layer of the OSI model.
  • In the hub, mostly collisions occur in setup. In full-duplex switch does not occur collisions.
  • The speed of the hub network is up to 10 Mb per second. The speed of switch is 10/100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, and 10 Gbps.

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